The first part of this book is dedicated to a discussion of mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. We start with a list of basic definitions and explanations (Chapter 1). Chapter 2 is devoted to the mass spectrometer and its building blocks. In this chapter we describe in relative detail the most common ion sources, mass analyzers, and detectors. Some of the techniques are not extensively used today, but they are often cited in the MS literature, and are important contributions to the history of MS instrumentation. In Chapter 3 we describe both different fragmentation methods and several typical tandem MS analyzer configurations. Chapter 4 is somewhat of an outsider. Separation methods is certainly too vast a topic to do full justice in less than twenty pages. However, some separation methods are used in such close alliance with MS that the two techniques are always referred to as one combined analytical tool, for example, GC-MS and LC-MS. In effect, it is almost impossible to study the MS literature without coming across at least one separation method. Our main goal with Chapter 4 is, therefore, to facilitate an introduction to the MS literature for the reader by providing a short summary of the basic principles of some of the most common separation methods that have been used in conjunction with mass spectrometry.