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Ebook Of Analysis Methode: Handbook Of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

ICARDA logo(Picture from http://www.icarda.org)

The idea that one could test or analyze a soil and obtain some information about its properties especially its acidity or alkalinity and its nutrient status is long established, and can be traced back to the beginning of scientific inquiry about the nature of soil. Analysis of plant to reflect fertility status of the soil in which it grew is more recent, although visual crop observations are as old as the ancient Greeks, if not older. In the last few decades, spurred on by commercialization of agriculture and the demands for increased output from limited and even diminishing land resources, both soil and plant analysis procedures have been developed, and are still evolving.

With the advent of chemical fertilizers, the need to know nutrient status of a soil in order to use these expensive and limited inputs more effectively became all the more crucial. However, if soil testing is to be an effective means of evaluating fertility status of soils, correct methodology is absolutely essential. A soil or a field may be assessed for its capability of providing a crop with essential nutrients in several ways:

  1. Field Plot Fertilizer Trials;
  2. Greenhouse Pot Experiments;
  3. Crop Deficiency Symptoms;
  4. Plant Analysis;
  5. Rapid Tissue or Sap Analysis;
  6. Biological Tests, such as Growing Microorganisms; and
  7. Soil Testing prior to Cropping

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Ebook Of Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control 1st Edition by Paul Wyatt and Stuart Warren

246 x189 PPC (Page 1)(Picture from amazon.com)

Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control is the long-awaited sequel to Stuart Warren’s bestseller Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, which looked at the planning behind the synthesis of compounds. This unique book now provides a comprehensive, practical account of the key concepts involved in synthesising compounds and focuses on putting the planning into practice.

The two themes of the book are strategy and control: solving problems either by finding an alternative strategy or by controlling any established strategy to make it work. The book is divided into five sections that deal with selectivity, carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-carbon double bonds, stereochemistry and functional group strategy.

  • A comprehensive, practical account of the key concepts involved in synthesising compounds
  • Takes a mechanistic approach, which explains reactions and gives guidelines on how reactions might behave in different situations
  • Focuses on reactions that really work rather than those with limited application
  • Contains extensive, up-to-date references in each chapter

Students and professional chemists familiar with Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach will enjoy the leap into a book designed for chemists at the coalface of organic synthesis Read more »

Metode Konvensional Penentuan Bahan Hilang Pijar (Loss Of Ignition) Pada Sampel Tanah Lempung (Clay) Sebagai Bahan Baku Keramik Secara Gravimetri

ceramic industryIndustri keramik (Picture from https://www.stiavelli.com)

Istilah keramik mencakup material sintetik yang komponen pentingnya berupa material nonlogam anorganik. Definisi yang luas ini meliputi semen, beton, kaca di samping produk lempung yang di bakar lebih tradisional seperti batu bata, genteng, tembikar dan porselin. Keramik telah digunakan sejak dahulu; bangkitnya peradaban dari keadaan primitif ditandai dengan serpihan-serpihan tembikar. Keramik mempunyai kelebihan dalam hal kekakuan, kekerasan, tahan aus, dan tahan korosi (terutama oleh oksigen dan air), meskipun pada suhu tinggi. Keramik memiliki kerapatan lebih kecil daripada kebanyakan logam, yang membuatnya disukai sebagai pengganti logam bila bobot merupakan hal yang dipertimbangkan. Kebanyakan keramik merupakan isolator listrik yang baik pada suhu normal, suatu sifat yang dimanfaatkan dalam elektronika dan transmisi daya (Oxtoby et al. 2003). Salah satu bahan baku yang sangat penting untuk pembuatan keramik adalah tanah lempung (Clay).
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