The first part of this book is dedicated to a discussion of mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. We start with a list of basic definitions and explanations (Chapter 1). Chapter 2 is devoted to the mass spectrometer and its building blocks. In this chapter we describe in relative detail the most common ion sources, mass analyzers, and detectors. Some of the techniques are not extensively used today, but they are often cited in the MS literature, and are important contributions to the history of MS instrumentation. In Chapter 3 we describe both different fragmentation methods and several typical tandem MS analyzer configurations. Chapter 4 is somewhat of an outsider. Separation methods is certainly too vast a topic to do full justice in less than twenty pages. However, some separation methods are used in such close alliance with MS that the two techniques are always referred to as one combined analytical tool, for example, GC-MS and LC-MS. In effect, it is almost impossible to study the MS literature without coming across at least one separation method. Our main goal with Chapter 4 is, therefore, to facilitate an introduction to the MS literature for the reader by providing a short summary of the basic principles of some of the most common separation methods that have been used in conjunction with mass spectrometry.
The first edition of the Practical Handbook of Microbiology was published in 1989. Since that time, the field of microbiology has undergone many changes and has grown to encompass other disciplines as well. New chapters have been added and a number of chapters from the first edition were dropped. Tables in the first edition that were outdated have been replaced by tables in the individual chapters. This edition also contains a new broad and concise survey table of selected eubacteria. Areas generally considered part of microbiology that were not covered or covered only briefly in the first edition are now included with comprehensive introductory chapters. This book was written to provide basic knowledge and practical information about working with microorganisms, in a clear and concise form. Although of use to anyone interested in the subject matter, the book is intended to especially benefit two groups of microbiologists: people trained as microbiologists who are highly specialized in working with one specific area of microbiology; and people who have been trained in other disciplines and use microorganisms as simply another tool or chemical reagent. Continue reading
Handbook of Microbiological Media Fourth Edition By Ronald M. Atlas includes the formulations and descriptions of 7,080 media used for cultivating microorganisms more than in the previous edition. These include both classic and modern media used for the identification, cultivation, and maintenance of diverse bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Some of these microbiological media are produced by major suppliers of dehydrated media including Oxoid, HiMedia, and BD Diagnostics (Difco, BBL, and GIBCO). These include all the media normally used in the clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratory and for the routine examination of food and water. Other media described in the fourth edition of the Handbook of Microbiological Media are used to cultivate specific strains of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists, including many anaerobes and extremophiles. Continue reading
The idea that one could test or analyze a soil and obtain some information about its properties especially its acidity or alkalinity and its nutrient status is long established, and can be traced back to the beginning of scientific inquiry about the nature of soil. Analysis of plant to reflect fertility status of the soil in which it grew is more recent, although visual crop observations are as old as the ancient Greeks, if not older. In the last few decades, spurred on by commercialization of agriculture and the demands for increased output from limited and even diminishing land resources, both soil and plant analysis procedures have been developed, and are still evolving.
With the advent of chemical fertilizers, the need to know nutrient status of a soil in order to use these expensive and limited inputs more effectively became all the more crucial. However, if soil testing is to be an effective means of evaluating fertility status of soils, correct methodology is absolutely essential. A soil or a field may be assessed for its capability of providing a crop with essential nutrients in several ways:
- Field Plot Fertilizer Trials;
- Greenhouse Pot Experiments;
- Crop Deficiency Symptoms;
- Plant Analysis;
- Rapid Tissue or Sap Analysis;
- Biological Tests, such as Growing Microorganisms; and
- Soil Testing prior to Cropping