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Chemistry Ebook: Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation, Interpretation, and Applications

mass spectrometry ebook

The first part of this book is dedicated to a discussion of mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. We start with a list of basic definitions and explanations (Chapter 1). Chapter 2 is devoted to the mass spectrometer and its building blocks. In this chapter we describe in relative detail the most common ion sources, mass analyzers, and detectors. Some of the techniques are not extensively used today, but they are often cited in the MS literature, and are important contributions to the history of MS instrumentation. In Chapter 3 we describe both different fragmentation methods and several typical tandem MS analyzer configurations. Chapter 4 is somewhat of an outsider. Separation methods is certainly too vast a topic to do full justice in less than twenty pages. However, some separation methods are used in such close alliance with MS that the two techniques are always referred to as one combined analytical tool, for example, GC-MS and LC-MS. In effect, it is almost impossible to study the MS literature without coming across at least one separation method. Our main goal with Chapter 4 is, therefore, to facilitate an introduction to the MS literature for the reader by providing a short summary of the basic principles of some of the most common separation methods that have been used in conjunction with mass spectrometry.

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Brief Content Of Mass Spectrometry Ebook:

PART I INSTRUMENTATION
1 DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
Ann Westman-Brinkmalm and Gunnar Brinkmalm
References
2 A MASS SPECTROMETER’S BUILDING BLOCKS
Ann Westman-Brinkmalm and Gunnar Brinkmalm
2.1. Ion Sources
2.1.1. Gas Discharge
2.1.2. Thermal Ionization
2.1.3. Spark Source
2.1.4. Glow Discharge
2.1.5. Inductively Coupled Plasma
2.1.6. Electron Ionization
2.1.7. Chemical Ionization
2.1.8. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization
2.1.9. Photoionization
2.1.10. Multiphoton Ionization
2.1.11. Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization
2.1.12. Field Ionization
2.1.13. Field Desorption
2.1.14. Thermospray Ionization
2.1.15. Electrospray Ionization
2.1.16. Desorption Electrospray Ionization
2.1.17. Direct Analysis in Real Time
2.1.18. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
2.1.19. Fast Atom Bombardment
2.1.20. Plasma Desorption
2.1.21. Laser Desorption/Ionization
2.1.22. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization
2.1.23.Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization
2.2. Mass Analyzers
2.2.1. Time-of-Flight
2.2.2. Magnetic/Electric Sector
2.2.3. Quadrupole Mass Filter
2.2.4. Quadrupole Ion Trap
2.2.5. Orbitrap
2.2.6. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance
2.2.7. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
2.3. Detectors
2.3.1. Photoplate Detector
2.3.2. Faraday Detector
2.3.3. Electron Multipliers
2.3.4. Focal Plane Detector
2.3.5. Scintillation Detector
2.3.6. Cryogenic Detector
2.3.7. Solid-State Detector
2.3.8. Image Current Detection
3 TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY
Ann Westman-Brinkmalm and Gunnar Brinkmalm
3.1. Tandem MS Analyzer Combinations
3.1.1. Tandem-in-Space
3.1.2. Tandem-in-Time
3.1.3. Other Tandem MS Configurations
3.2. Ion Activation Methods
3.2.1. In-Source Decay
3.2.2. Post-Source Decay
3.2.3. Collision Induced/Activated Dissociation
3.2.4. Photodissociation
3.2.5. Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation
3.2.6. Electron Capture Dissociation
3.2.7. Electron Transfer Dissociation
3.2.8. Surface-Induced Dissociation
4 SEPARATION METHODS
Ann Westman-Brinkmalm, Jerzy Silberring, and
Gunnar Brinkmalm
4.1. Chromatography
4.1.1. Gas Chromatography
4.1.2. Liquid Chromatography
4.1.3. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
4.2. Electric-Field Driven Separations
4.2.1. Ion Mobility
4.2.2. Electrophoresis

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PART II INTERPRETATION
5 INTRODUCTION TO MASS SPECTRA INTERPRETATION: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Albert T. Lebedev
5.1. Basic Concepts
5.2. Inlet Systems
5.2.1. Direct Inlet
5.2.2. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
5.3. Physical Bases of Mass Spectrometry
5.3.1. Electron Ionization
5.3.2. Basics of Fragmentation Processes in Mass Spectrometry
5.3.3. Metastable Ions 135
5.4. Theoretical Rules and Approaches to Interpret Mass Spectra
5.4.1. Stability of Charged and Neutral Particles
5.4.2. The Concept of Charge and Unpaired Electron Localization
5.4.3. Charge Remote Fragmentation
5.5. Practical Approaches to Interpret Mass Spectra
5.5.1. Molecular Ion
5.5.2. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
5.5.3. Determination of the Elemental Composition of Ions on the Basis of Isotopic Peaks
5.5.4. The Nitrogen Rule
5.5.5. Establishing the 13C Isotope Content in Natural Samples
5.5.6. Calculation of the Isotopic Purity of Samples
5.5.7. Fragment Ions
5.5.8. Mass Spectral Libraries
5.5.9. Additional Mass Spectral Information
5.5.10. Fragmentation Scheme
6 SEQUENCING OF PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS
Marek Noga, Tomasz Dylag, and Jerzy Silberring
6.1. Basic Concepts
6.2. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Peptides and Proteins
6.3. Peptide Fragmentation Nomenclature
6.3.1. Roepstorff’s Nomenclature
6.3.2. Biemann’s Nomenclature
6.3.3. Cyclic Peptides
6.4. Technical Aspects and Fragmentation Rules
6.5. Why Peptide Sequencing?
6.6. De Novo Sequencing
6.6.1. Data Acquisition
6.6.2. Sequencing Procedure Examples
6.6.3. Tips and Tricks
6.7. Peptide Derivatization Prior to Fragmentation
6.7.1. Simplification of Fragmentation Patterns
6.7.2. Stable Isotopes Labeling
7 OPTIMIZING SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY IN MASS
SPECTROMETRIC PROTEOME ANALYSIS
Jan Eriksson and David Fenyo¨
7.1. Quantitation
7.2. Peptide and Protein Identification
7.3. Success Rate and Relative Dynamic Range
7.4. Summary
8 DOPING CONTROL
Graham Trout
9 OCEANOGRAPHY
R. Timothy Short, Robert H. Byrne, David Hollander, Johan Schijf,
Strawn K. Toler, and Edward S. VanVleet
10 “OMICS” APPLICATIONS
Simone Ko¨nig
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Genomics and Transcriptomics
10.3. Proteomics
10.4. Metabolomics
11 SPACE SCIENCES
Robert Sheldon
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Origins
11.3. Dynamics
11.4. The Space MS Paradox
11.5. A Brief History of Space MS
11.5.1. Beginnings
11.5.2. Linear TOF-MS
11.5.3. Isochronous TOF-MS
11.6. GENESIS and the Future
12 BIOTERRORISM
Vito G. DelVecchio and Cesar V. Mujer
12.1. What is Bioterrorism?
12.2. Some Historical Accounts of Bioterrorism
12.3. Geneva Protocol of 1925 and Biological Weapons
Convention of 1972
12.4. Categories of Biothreat Agents
12.5. Challenges
12.6. MS Identification of Biomarker Proteins
12.7. Development of New Therapeutics and Vaccines Using Immunoproteomics
13 IMAGING OF SMALL MOLECULES
Małgorzata Iwona Szynkowska
13.1. SIMS Imaging
13.2. Biological Applications (Cells, Tissues, and Pharmaceuticals)
13.3. Catalysis
13.4. Forensics
13.5. Semiconductors
13.6. The Future
14 UTILIZATION OF MASS SPECTROMETRY IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Donald H. Chace
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Where are Mass Spectrometers Utilized in Clinical Applications?
14.3. Most Common Analytes Detected by Mass Spectrometers
14.4. Multianalyte Detection of Clinical Biomarkers, The Real Success Story
14.5. Quantitative Profiling
14.6. A Clinical Example of the Use of Mass Spectrometry
14.7. Demonstrations of Concepts of Quantification in Clinical Chemistry
14.7.1. Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Sorting (Pocket Change)
14.7.2. Isotope Dilution and Quantification (the Jelly Bean Experiment)
15 POLYMERS
Maurizio S. Montaudo
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Instrumentation, Sample Preparation, and Matrices
15.3. Analysis of Ultrapure Polymer Samples
15.4. Analysis of Polymer Samples in which all Chains Possess
the Same Backbone
15.5. Analysis of Polymer Mixtures with
Different Backbones
15.6. Determination of Average Molar Masse

16 FORENSIC SCIENCES
Maria Kala
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Materials Examined and Goals of Analysis
16.3. Sample Preparation
16.4. Systematic Toxicological Analysis
16.4.1. GC-MS Procedures
16.4.2. LC-MS Procedures
16.5. Quantitative Analysis
16.6. Identification of Arsons
17 NEW APPROACHES TO NEUROCHEMISTRY
Jonas Bergquist, Jerzy Silberring, and Rolf Ekman
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Why is there so Little Research in this Area?
17.3. Proteomics and Neurochemistry
17.3.1. The Synapse
17.3.2. Learning and Memory
17.3.3. The Brain and the Immune System
17.3.4. Stress and Anxiety
17.3.5. Psychiatric Diseases and Disorders
17.3.6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
17.3.7. Addiction
17.3.8. Pain
17.3.9. Neurodegenerative Diseases
17.4. Conclusions

Review By Introduction Of Mass Spectrometry

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Instrumentation,Interpretation, and Applications

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